Hanzi Pinyin Original_language Original_form Original_meaning Examples    
ān Wa?; or Palaung (De'ang)? ang (Wa)?; am (Palaung)? Wa bowl, basin?; Palaung (De'ang 德昂) boulder (r)ang 安康,安瓦,安丙,安黑寨,安也寨,安龙    
bān Tai (Shan?) Burmese ? baan3 'village' (Tai); pang2 'tree' (Burmese) village, town (sometimes perhaps alternates with 邦, as in 邦丙; cf. 班康, 邦伞; and with 曼 (q.v.), as in 曼海[MM], 曼隆坦 [MM], 曼桑 [MM],曼德勒 [MM], 大曼令寨 [CN] ) 班洪,班老,班率,班角[MM],班歪[MM],班糯寨    
bǐng Wa? bāing? white? 安丙,邦丙    
定,汀 dng Wa? dīng big 南汀河,南定河    
东 (栋?),冬,董 dōng Wa? Tai? dōung (Wa) tun3; (Tai) plain, flats, level (ground) (Wa); tree (Tai) 文东,东勐寨,景栋?,贺冬,勐董    
戛,嘎 Shan (Tai); khao 'hill'? (not Shan) kat9 ? market ? 木戛,上戛戛,翁嘎科,戛多    
h Shan (Tai) ho1 head (?) (e.g., head of the plain) 贺勐,贺冬    
jǐng Tai (Shan?) chiang town 景栋,景谷,(允)景洪,景列    
科,课 kē, k Lahu? hk'a55 village?; or tax-collection-related? (课 meant 'tax,levy' in e.g., 烟课 opium tax'); (or kē is related to 'kt' of Wa Kt -- Wenggake people belong to Wa Kt branch of Wa ap. Wei Deming, Wazu lishi yu wenhua yanjiu, p.4 翁嘎科,中课    
l Wa? (M-K) Cf. Wang Jingliu (LGV p.78): Chn. l 腊 > Shan (Tai) la4 'socially advanced Wa people' < proto-Wa (M-K) laʔ,luaʔ,lvaʔ,l'vaʔ 'Wa (Vax) people' + Chn. jiā 家 'family, tribe' i.e., related to modern Lava; or Buddhist-related? 南腊,腊戌,班腊(MM),腊吊(MM)    
li Shan (Tai) loi လ mountain 来姆山,来香山    
ling Shan (Tai) lɛŋ4; dry (lɛŋ4); red 帕良(red),民良寨(dry)    
马、骂 mǎ, m Shan (Tai) mat9 sand (white sand?) 南马河,南骂河    
曼 (蛮) mn (mn) Shan (Tai) man3 (may6) tree, wood 曼海[MM], 曼隆坦 [MM], 曼桑 [MM],曼德勒 [MM], 大曼令寨 [CN],大蛮海寨,(小)曼海    
mng Shan (Tai)   same as 勐 etc.? or 'village'? (c.f. bāng) 芒回,芒美,芒洪,芒翁    
勐、猛、孟、(盟?) měng,mng Shan (Tai) mng?, mu'ang?, meung? realm, Shan princely state; and/or small level ground, plain (XHZD) 勐勐,勐省,孟连,(西盟?)    
mn Shan (Tai) man3 village (?) 民良寨    
nn Tai (Shan?) nam (lam53) river, water 南卡江,南汀河(南定河)    
p Shan (Tai) pha1 rock, boulder 帕拍,帕良,帕结    
nu Shan (Tai) ? and Wa nɔŋ ? lake, pond 糯良, 糯福,班糯寨    
帅 (率?) shui Wa? soi chain, necklace 岩帅,班率    
M-K? (Wa?) si (Mon-Khmer presyllable) 思茅    
wn Tai (Shan?)   (very frequent esp. in eastern Shan State, Myanmar placenames) 万霍道,万恰祖修,万吞,万敦绷    
wn Tai? (Shan?); Wa? veng? man? wall, walled town or city; cloth 文东    
wēng Palaung (De'ang)? am? rock 翁不老,翁嘎科    
yn (but in Yunnan pronounced 'ai' Wa? yaong village, town 岩帅,岩丙寨,岩城,岩小寨    
yǒng Wa? yaong village, town 永德,永和,永不勒,永农寨,永安    
yǔn < Tai (Shan) < Wa? ngīm (Tai/Wa) < hnim (Wa) 'slow' (flow of water) slow (according to story told by Wei Deming, Tai 'ngim' is from Wa 'hnim', referring to slow-flowing water there -- Si ngian rang mai si mgang lih, pp.139-140) 上允,下允, 细允,允恩(MM),上、下勐允, 允景洪